1Dr. Kadiri Kamoru Oluwatoyin, 2Agboola Mutiu Kolawole, and 3Engr. Alimi Teslim Adekunle
1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa Kwara state, Nigeria.
2Federal Polytechnic Ede, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.
3Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State
A country such as Nigeria, which often runs out of electricity, therefore, operates diesel or petrol generators in a costly, not environmentally-friendly manner that often require regular maintenance. Farmers’ productivity is restricted without a trustworthy and renewable energy source. In this research, a multiplex energy dispatch management (HRES) hybrid green energy network was built to fulfill case studies’ energy requirements efficiently (Twins Dairy Farm). Most sites contain a wealth of animal waste and crop residue, useful resources for biomass/biogas, available areas on the roofs of buildings, suitable for installation of solar panels, and small wind turbines. The principal objective of this proposed study is the possibility of utilizing such tools present in farms to satisfy the energy needs of the agricultural community. A comprehensive network study was carried out with the help of biogas, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, diesel, and battery systems. The intention was that the first capital costs for the HRES were minimized and the costs of operating the HRES were kept to the energy demand of the farm.
Keywords: Energy, Homer, Hybrid, Renewable and Solar
Energy is one of the critical tools driving economic growth in any region. Power is vital in all areas of food and livestock, manufacturing, service delivery, and livelihood development. Fossil fuels, such as coal, crude oil, gas and renewable energies, including solar, wind and biogas, are among the significant sources of electricity. Nigeria, as a region, with both energy categories for electricity production, has plenty of energy resources. During the past 40 years, energy supplies in Nigeria have been mainly generated from coal fuels . In Nigeria, the electricity sector continually retained its image as a less developed nation and was unable to react to any of its approaches to improve production . The decline in Nigeria’s oil-price economy was an awakening message. The need to switch from a single commodity economy to diversify their economy was felt in Nigeria, which is primarily based on crude. The historically ignored agriculture sector concentrated efforts to boost the economy.
Agriculture is a critical driver for any nation’s overall growth. Focusing on agriculture will create employment for many unemployed young people, increase food quality and tackle country deprivation. Therefore, the export of the country’s GDP will increase export cash crops such as chocolate, palm oil, groundnut and so forth [3-4], according to the Population Regional Committee. There are currently about 198 million residents in Nigeria. Nigeria produces just about 5,000 megawatts of peak capacity, mostly from gas and hydroelectricity. According to the increasingly increasing demand of consumers, the usable capacity can not accommodate frequent load shedding and power outages.
There is no exposure to affordable energy for a large proportion of the population  With a renewable energy supply, the return from agriculture can be increased. In all points of the farming chain, energy exposure impacts growers. Many resources (RESs) in the country are not entirely used, such as hydro-, wind- and solar . To fill the national grid electricity deficit, the production of Solar Power is very restricted to person homes in cities and street lights [3-5]. While a range of research studies have been carried out in Nigeria into the potential for biomass, wind and solar resources, its growth has only just begun to draw overdue interest [6-7]. The electric energy production by sources such as solar PV or wind power systems would rely on resources accessible, such as wind or sunlight. This offers transient power for loading and thus must be utilized when usable or deposited . The combination of various renewable energy options, which balance each other with other backup sources, will alleviate this challenge. The best potential usage of this hybrid power supply network contributes to a higher device capacity, more robust, effective and low-cost output than a single model .
The emphasis was on the traditionally ignored farming sector to diversify the economy. For everyday operations, agricultural centres require a stable supply of electricity. A country such as Nigeria which often runs out of electricity, therefore, operates diesel or petrol generators in a costly, not environmentally-friendly manner that often require regular maintenance. Farmers’ productivity is restricted without a trustworthy and renewable energy source. In this research, a sophisticated energy dispatch management (HRES) hybrid green energy network was built to fulfil case studies’ energy requirements efficiently (Twins Dairy Farm). This form, however, is portable to require access to a specific venue.
For everyday activities, farms have some energy needs. A sustainable alternative for many jobs which require energy and which have the potential to sustain and minimize annual energy costs is the generation of renewable energy on-farm with resources available from the farms. A great deal of research was performed on hybrid power device models, as can be found in the literature. Minimal effort was, however, made to implement the HRES to integrate biogas and biomass to meet the energy requirements of farms in Nigeria. Most sites contain a wealth of animal waste and crop residue, useful resources for biomass/biogas, available areas on the roofs of buildings, suitable for installation of solar panels and small wind turbines. The principal objective of this proposed study is the possibility of utilizing such tools present in farms to satisfy the energy needs of the agricultural community. A detailed study of the grid-related hybrid system was performed consisting of biogas, solar-panelled solar thermal electricity, diesel and battery backup (generated by anaerobic digestion of cow dung and other organic waste).
2.0 Literature Review
We are concerned about different green energy options and their clean energy ability in Nigeria. The chapter also examined several components and configurations of the hybrid renewable energy systems. Ultimately, various strategies were explored to maximize the size of hybrid device components for effective and productive usage of renewable energy capital
2.1 Wind potential in Nigeria
The breeze is a consequence of intermittent surface heating by the sun, and the resultant temperature differential induces variations in density and thus the air movement. Research has been carried out to discuss the possibilities and complexities of leveraging electricity production wind-power capacity in Nigeria . Throughout the south of the country, the average wind speed is relatively weak except for the offshore and coastal areas which are windy. Offshore waters from Lagos to the Delta state of Ondo
2.2 Biogas production
In all areas of the world, biomass is already a significant source of energy for farmers. Still, biogas has been used in Nigeria to date, in particular in terms of animal manure and crop residues in farmland. Biogas is a result of organic matter anaerobic decomposition. Mixed gases, mostly methane 60 % to 70%, 30 to 40% carbon dioxide and quantities of other gases .Production of biogas may use poultry or dairy farm agricultural waste. The gas may be used to heat or produce electricity. In the absence of oxygen, organic materials may be generated anywhere, and organic materials are broken down in the atmosphere . The biogas production may be achieved by fermenting biodegradable materials or by digesting anaerobic materials in the closed system utilizing micro-organisms. Under controlled chamber called bio-digester, biogas can be deliberately produced.
2.3 Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems
The development of sustainable energy depends on capital volatile and climate-dependent [10-11]. For example, much of the solar power is accessible during the day, but other energy sources are required or stored at night. Depending on the season, wind intensity is variable and varies. So the electricity need of a specific area can not be met enough by private sources of renewable energy . Energy system stability may be enhanced by integrating renewables (such as sun and wind) with one or more blessings to decrease the effects of volatility [11-12].
Figure 2.2: Scheme of a Typical Hybrid Renewable Energy Network with Diesel Generator Backup 
2.4 Solar PV System
The basic PV system designs are various. PV racks, controls, inverters and batteries are the elements used with the various device setups. The most comfortable device configuration is to make the PV array directly attached to the power grid by DC so that the current and voltage grid parameters suit the device. To ensure they fit, a DC inverter may be used. The charging will only operate for this system when energy is generated in the PV array, i.e. during the day.
2.5 Review of Related Works
In terms of electricity demands and distant areas, green energy is a healthy option. Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES) have advanced, made the technology more efficient and cost-effective, and are the leading solutions to address the predictability and incoherence of renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, construction, service and preparation have other challenges. The battery bank needs to be installed to store the electricity in time for renewables to generate surplus or low power demand [13-14]
Sites with little exposure to stable power grid supply are feasible for renewable energy schemes, but it is challenging to prepare HRES for rural electrification. HRES experiments were carried out in modelling, sizing and rural electrification efficiency [4-5]. It is also necessary to accurately decide the scale of the generation device and correctly choose a combination of energy sources depending on the requirement for electricity and energy supplies available on the site to render the device productive and cost-effective [6-7] to maximize performance thus the costs of the network. Optimizing HES using algorithm search technology will quickly solve the limitations of conventional methods of optimization such as long-running times and limited storage space.
In general, solar energy is widely accepted. Because of its full availability, solar photovoltaics technology is widely recognized and commonly included in most HRES energy sources, such as the wind and diesel generator, solar photovoltaic energy technology [8-9]. For cost-effective and efficient network activity, the best range of hybrid system components is essential, particularly in the case of stand-alone systems that lack reliable grid backup [12-14]. However, several studies have been performed using naturally influenced heuristic techniques such as genetic algorithm [1-3] specific swamp optimization (PSO) [11-13]. The importance of the HOMER program for HRES optimization research is evident from observed literature.
The estimation of device currents was focused on a statistical model for each part of the proposed hybrid network. To maximize the HRES design with the lowest-life span of the components of the renewable energy network by utilizing the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Use of the combined consignment strategy would eventually be a true-time economic dispatch control system algorithm.
Figure 3.1: Methodology flowchart
3.1 Site study and configuration of proposed HRES
Such study analysis begins with a case study, such that the hourly electrical and thermal energy requirement is measured for an average day, for each month of the year by way of measurement instruments (multimeters and energy meters). The site will then be thoroughly audited for quality and staff control of the equipment used and resources. And we gather all year long, taking into account the seasonal variation in the market, clean energy input data (solar irradiation, wind speed, agricultural waste, water run-off). The details was collected from reputable metrological sources such as the Nigeria Weather Service and NASA SUMM (SSE), semi-formal interviews and physical surveys on the planned case study platform. The findings of this research are available on the Nigerian website.
3.2 Proposed Hybrid Energy System
The device comprises of a biogas generator (BGG), a photovoltaic generator (PVG), solar thermal (STH), a battery bank storage network(BAT). For transform the AC input for DC and vice versa, electronic converters are required. The electric energy for use can be produced directly or indirectly from the energy stored on the battery bank using renewable generators and diesel generator. Equation (3.2) to Equation ( 3.2) describes the relationship between produced energy and supplied load.
The energy available to charge the battery backup (BAT) at any hour t is expressed in Equation (3.6), and the energy obtainable from the battery to serve the load is given in Equation (3.7).
The total energy available to serve the AC load, DC load and thermal load are shown in Equation (3.8), Equation (3.9) and Equation (3.10) respectively.
Where is the energy output from technology j energy output from technology j fed to AC load, energy output from technology j channelled to DC load, energy output from technology j directed to load, is excess energy output from technology j directed to dump load. energy stored in a battery, is the energy output from technology j directed to battery and j stands for STH, BGG, PVG, DPG, and BAT.
4.0 Result and Discussion
The goal of the optimization process is to identify the optimal value of each vector of judgment such as AC – DC inverter number of batteries and size. In the process of optimization, HOMER simulates several various types of devices and discards them
The most impressive. practical and cost-effective system options based on different average daily loads Requirement of approximately 5.6 and 20 kW hours a day (interest rate: Table I indicates 12%, wind speed: 4.56 m / s and global solar radiation: 4.9 kW h / m2 day)
TABLE I. The most efficient hybrid renewable energy systems under different average daily load from 5.6 to 20 kW h/
Mean daily PV array WT number No. of Inverter Initial Operating Total COE electricity
load (kW) (kW) (1 kW) batteries (kW) capital Cost ($) cost ($/yr) NPC ($) ($/kW h) fraction (%)
5.6 3 1 16 1 18247 386 21132 1.384 53.1
5.6 4 1 12 1 20280 326 22718 1.488 63.5
5.6 4 0 16 1 20767 373 23553 1.543 57.1
5.6 3 1 16 5 21847 386 24732 1.620 53.1
10 9 0 16 5 41867 456 45275 1.661 66.3
10 9 1 16 5 42847 486 46479 1.705 68.8
10 10 0 16 5 45367 473 48900 1.794 69.8
10 9 0 16 10 46347 456 49775 1.826 66.3
20 26 1 16 5 102347 770 108096 1.984 77.7
20 27 0 16 5 104867 756 110517 2.028 77.8
20 27 1 16 5 105847 786 111721 2.049 78.5
20 26 1 16 10 106847 770 112596 2.066 77.7
Figure .2 represents the average monthly production of electricity from a specified PV set and Systems of wind turbines. Nominal capacity varies from 0.3kW in the planned hybrid network In July, from December to 0.9kW. The best energy must probably be
The high capacity of solar radiation and wind power is produced in the summer months. The various costs were classified for selected system hybrid components. The PV collection is, of course, the largest share of the overall device expense (NPC)
51.45 per cent of income, service and battery ($10 874) ($38.58 percent, $8154) as shown in figure 3.
Figure 2. Contribution of the PV and Wind for electrical production.
Figure 3. Cash flow summary of the optimal hybrid system.
The connection between overall electricity output and battery count, wind speed and global solar radiation is demonstrated in figure 4 and 5. More energy must be produced as wind speed or global radiation increases as is evident in Fig. The number of batteries expected to be installed for the hybrid device has decreased from 16 to 12 as the global solar radiation is set at 4,9kWhile the wind intensity is up 5 m/s. The Bigot also recommends having minimum batteries of 12 while the wind speed is higher than 5 m/s because the battery operates optimally as the entire device generates higher energy. In such conditions, however, more excess power was generated. Furthermore, when winds are set at 4.56 m/s and world solar radiation, the same state exists.
Figure 4: Sensitivity analysis of total electrical production, number of batteries, and wind speed for the designed hybrid system
Figure 5: Sensitivity analysis of total electrical production, number of batteries, and solar radiation for the designed hybrid system.
- The system’s grid link can only be required to satisfy the grid load if the demand for electricity from the farm becomes more significant than that generated by wind electricity and battery storage sources. There should also be a summary of the prospective transfer of surplus energy to the grid via the net metering scheme.
- Biogas (cow dung) and solar (sun) are the origins of a hybrid renewable energy network to be explored as they are intended to have a higher capacity of electricity in the proposed region. For other locations or farms, other renewable energy sources such as hydroelectrical energy, wind and other biomass uses may be considered.
- The provision of thermal load (water boiling) for sanitary purposes, and the processing of milk by biogas combustion or solar thermal, without inclusion in the optimization study, should be taken into account in a phase before simulation and thus integrated into the device model. The output of electricity will primarily provide electricity and not thermal or mechanical resources.
- Debate regarding solutions to animal management is not a big concern of this report, because the only topic that concerns animals is the time they spend together to increase the available food.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
This research will primarily concentrate on the viability of productive energy services being used by farms to fulfil farm area energy needs. This approach may also be generalized such that a comparable location can be reached. A comprehensive networks study was carried out with the help of biogas, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, diesel and battery systems. The intention was that the first capital costs for the HRES were minimized and the costs of operating the HRES were kept to the energy demand of the farm. There was a definition of an economic strategy. A cost analysis and responsiveness study of the program was carried out and contrasted to that of the marketable HOMER framework to verify the hybrid system proposed. Also, the opportunities are explored for farmers to sell excess power back to the network via a net metering scheme
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Engr. Kadiri Kamoru O. began his Engineering career at The Polytechnic Ibadan, where he obtained Upper Credit at National Diploma in Electrical Electronics Engineering in 1988. He proceeded to Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, for his B.Sc in Electrical /Electronic Engineering, he possess three Masters Degrees, (MBA University of Ado Ekiti, MILR University of Ilorin, M.Sc Babcock University) and Doctoral Degree (PhD) with area of specialization in Networking and Telecommunication also in Babcock University. As a Registered Engineer, he is a member of the following professional bodies: Fellow, Institute of Data Processing Management of Nigeria , Fellow Nigerian Society of Engineers , Associate Member, Nigerian Institute of Management (AMNIM), Member, Nigerian Institute of Engineering Management (NIEM), Fellow Nigerian Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and international journal reviewer, resource person for National Board Technical Education (NBTE).
AGBOOLA Mutiu Kolawole is a staff in the Department of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ede. He started his career in the department as Assistant Technician in 2009 and currently a Senior Technologist in the department. Agboola obtained both his National Diploma (ND) and Higher National Diploma in Federal Polytechnic Ede in the year 2005 and 2008 respectively. He further obtained his First degree (B.Sc. Elect & Elect) in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife in 2019 and currently pursuing his Master degree (M. Eng.) in Osun State University, Osogbo. He specializes in Power and Machine and has great interest in Renewable Energy System (RES). Presently, an Associate Member of NIEEE and a Graduate Member of NSE. He has presented some high impact conference papers and published research papers in both national and international journals.
Engr. Alimi Teslim Adekunle held master of Engineering ( M. Eng) from Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State Nigeria. He is currently a Principal lecturer at The Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. Currently member of both Nigerian Society of Engineer and Council for registration of Engineer in Nigeria (COREN) Registered. He is also a member of Association of illumination Profession (AIP) Nigeria. His interest of study includes Power System Engineering & Machine.